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No 29
Vol. 29 No. 8
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Iran is among the most important oil-exporting countries in the world which enjoys the revenues of oil sales on providing public funding. The revenue of crude oil export in country constitutes a significant share of public budget. The aim of present study is to examine the effect of asymmetrical shocks of oil income on macroeconomic variables between 1970-2018.To investigate the relationship between Hamilton and Moorak oil shocks on macroeconomic variables auto regressive vector model is used. The results have shown that negative shock from Hamilton oil revenues compared to positive shock caused salient fluctuations on variables, but on positive and negative shocks of moorak, the effects of variables have been asymmetric. If positive and negative shocks to be entered on oil revenues, all the existing variables such as national gross income, national revenues, exports and imports of goods and services, government’s expenditures, inflation and private consumption will have reacted on incoming shocks.
- Yousef Mehnatfar - ali falahati
Keywords : Asymmetrical effects ، Oil revenue shock ، Auto regressive vector model
Russia, despite its US sanctions, has been able to gain a large share of the world's oil markets despite its active economic and energy strategy Because of its oil and gas priority, the European economy has largely nullified US sanctions on oil and gas, and even Russia has been successful in establishing sanctions against the United States by establishing a joint front with China and Venezuela. This article examines Russia's oil and gas strategies. Russia's most important strategies are to depend on the European economy for oil and gas, price regulation, transfer of state-owned oil companies to international companies, development of oil and gas pipelines, expansion of liquefied petroleum and its markets, and development of long-term cooperation with some of Iran's oil competitors. Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Meanwhile, Iran's approach to using Russia's capacity as a partner or competitor in the oil and gas field is significant.
Seyyed Abdollah Razavi - mohammad bagher bayat
Keywords : Russia,Iran,oil&Gas strategy,Sanction
The purpose of the present study is to use the dynamic conditional correlation method (DCC-GARCH) to examine the correlation structure in the seasonal data of exchange rate returns, stock market price index, gold price, oil price and housing price (rent index) over the period 1992 to It's 2016. The results obtained using OXMetrix software indicate that there is a high conditional correlation between gold and currency yields and the least conditional correlation is observed between housing and currency yields. In addition, by examining the conditional correlation diagram between returns on assets, there is a change in the conditional correlation process caused by global developments, indicating the impact of the world developments on Iranian economy.
alireza khazaei - mohammadreza sezavar - mojtaba eslamiyan
Keywords : Conditional Condition - Asset Markets - Return on Assets
Today, in most countries of the world, the status of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), due to the capacity to meet the country’s macroeconomic and social objectives, especially in terms of employment creation, fair distribution of wealth, and the reduction of the gap in social classes, the cost of investing less is the currency and Rial per person to the big business, high efficiency, the real presence of private sector in the economy, the ability to attract small investments and high flexibility, has taken seriously by the officials and policy makers of different countries. In this regard, and in light of the effective role of small and medium business development policies, especially government policies in facilitating the establishment of enterprises and improving the business environment of countries, as well as the existence of high unemployment and the necessity of job creation as one of the most important concerns of recent years in policy makers in Iran, the present study was aimed at investigating "The Role of Business Development Policies and Strategies on the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)". In order to data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics (Structural Equation Modeling) were used, using SMART-PLS and SPSS software. The sample size was 216 people. In this paper, the impact of business development policies on the development of small and medium-sized businesses was investigated from both strategic development and operational development aspects, both of which had very high coefficients (=0.939) and (=0.748) and their effect and significant relationship were confirmed. It was also observed that the variables "promotion of stakeholder satisfaction" and "identification and presence and development of target markets" in terms of strategic development had significant coefficients (=0.794) and (=0.786), respectively. The lowest coefficients of "Promotion of Labor and Capital Productivity" (=0.408) and "Corporate Governance Implementation" (=0.468) were also obtained. Among the variables related to operational development, the variable "Increased sales of products and services" (=0.908) had the highest and the variable "Risk management and strengthening of internal controls" (=0.791) had the lowest coefficient. Variables have their own relevant factor loads at present.
seyed abbas hosseini - torag mogibi - ali mehdizadeh - hossein vazifehdust
Keywords : Business Development Policies, ، Small and Medium Enterprises, ، Performance of small and medium enterprises
نرخ تنزيل اجتماعي يکي از متغيرهاي کلان است که اثر تعيين‎کننده‎اي بر بسياري از متغيرهاي کلان از قبيل رشد و پايداري ‎‎آن و همچنين متغيرهاي اخلاقي از قبيل عدالت بين‎نسلي دارد. مسئله‌اي که در اين مقاله به آن پرداخته شده است، تحليل تاثير نرخ تنزيل اجتماعي بر «پايداري» و «عدالت بين‎نسلي» است. طرح مسئله «پايداري» ناظر به اين دغدغه جهاني است که تشديد بحران¬هاي زيست¬محيطي مي¬تواند جريان فعلي رشد اقتصادي را در بلندمدت معکوس نمايد و رفاه و بهزيستي نسل¬هاي آتي را به مخاطره افکند. نشان داده مي‎شود که تحقق «معيار پايداري» مستلزم اين است که براي جلوگيري از افول مسير مصرف بهينه، نرخ تنزيل اجتماعي صفر باشد. همچنين بر طبق رويکرد اخلاقي، «عدالت بين‎نسلي» مستلزم برخورد يکسان با نسل¬هاي فعلي و آتي است و اخلاقاً صحيح نيست براي نسل¬هاي آتي اهميت کمتري قائل شويم و منابعي که حق آنهاست را اکنون به نفع خويش مصادره نموده و مصرف کنيم. اين رويکرد اخلاقي «نرخ¬ تنزيل اجتماعي صفردرصد» را تجويز مي¬نمايد که موجب سرمايه¬گذاري بيشتري مي¬شود و به رفاه آيندگان اهميت مي¬دهد.
Keywords : Social Time Preference ، Economic Growth ، Intergenerational Equity ، Sustainability

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